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End Of Time Notes

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BBC Asteroid Impact Simulation End Of The World Predictions

A huge asteroid with a diameter of 500 Kilometer is going to impact on Earth! Destination: Pacific Ocean. The asteroid impact peels 10 kilometers crust off the surface of Earth. The resulting shockwave travels at hypersonic speed. The debris from the impact is blasted to the lower orbit of Earth, and they returns to destroy everything on the planet. The firestorm created by the asteroid impact encircles the Earth,

vaporizing everything in our world. Within 24 hours of asteroid impact, the entire Earth will be uninhabitable. The researchers have found that this scenario has happened 6 times in Earth's history.

Civilizations at the End of Time Black Hole Farming

Today's topic, Black hole Farming, is goingto be a difficult one because it's a tutorial I probably shouldn't have made without coveringother topics first, and also because it draws heavily on quite a few other tutorials I didmake first. So it essentially amounts to three topics that we need to cover today and assumesa knowledge of the most recent tutorials on the channel, which means that if this is yourfirst visit to this channel, while I normally try to make tutorials as standalone as possibleand you probably can watch this without watching the others first, it isn't advised.That said, it isn't absolutely necessary and to help with that, whenever I bring uptopics we've covered in more detail in other

tutorials you will usually see an intutorial linkfor that tutorial pop up, and you can just click on it to pause this tutorial and watch that one.You can also turn on the closed caption subtitles if you are having problems understanding me.So I said it was actually three topics, not just one, for today. What are those threetopicsé Well let's list them out. 1) Using Black Holes for Power SourcesWe've talked about this before but mostly in the context of Hawking Radiation from small,artificial black holes. Today's tutorial is focused on large, longlived black holes,where Hawking Radiation is incredibly tiny and other methods are needed. So we'll bediscussing those other methods as well as

what the implications of living on minimalHawking Radiation would be like 2) The Fate of the UniverseIn this section we'll go over the timeline of ages of the Universe fairly quickly, andalso quickly cover some of the other ideas for Civilizations far in the future, whichwe may expand on in future tutorials. 3) Black Hole FarmingIn the last section we'll get into the meat of things, trying to contemplate what civilizationswould be like that essentially fed themselves off black holes. It's the concept of usingblack holes as the power source for your civilization, and actually creating or placing black holesto make that work best, which is the origin

of the title. I think it summons to mind theimage of farmer in coveralls with a pitchfork literally farming black holes but we'resticking with it anyway. So without further ado, let's dig in.Our first topic, using Black Holes as power sources is, as I mentioned, something we lookedat before in the twin tutorials discussing Hawking Radiation, MicroBlack Holes, and using themto power starships. You may want to watch those, or rewatch those, before proceeding,but the quick summary is that Black Holes are thought to emit Hawking Radiation looselyin proportion to their size. Except backwards from what you'd expect, the giant monstersized ones in the centers of galaxies emit

so little of it you'd need a trillion, trillionyears to collect enough energy to turn on a little LED light for a fraction of a second.Alternatively the small ones gush out power so fast they burn out their tiny mass in veryshort times. There's two upshots of this. First, thatthe lifespan of black holes is proportional to the cube of the mass, one twice as massiveemits only a quarter of the power and lives eight times longer, one ten times as massiveemits a hundredth of the power and lives a thousand times as long, etc.Second, if we can make artificial black holes, and especially if we can feed matter intothem to replace what they lose to Hawking

Radiation, we have an excellent power sourcefor things. Black Holes are roughly on par with antimatter, and vastly better than nuclearfission or fusion, in terms of energy per unitmass of fuel, and they don't blow upunless you starve them to death, a process that would take years or centuries normally,making them a very attractive option for power generation and storage.This is assuming we can figure out how to make small ones and feed them, both of whichare actually a lot harder than with their bigger, naturally occurring kindred. Whichagain emit virtually no energy on timelines that can be measured without using scientificnotation.

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