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Christianity from Judaism to Constantine Crash Course World History 11
Hi there my name's John Green; this is Crash CourseWorld History and today we're going to talk about Jesus. So this is a Roman coin from around the timeJesus was born in the Roman Empire, and it calls Augustus, the emperor, the son of God.So let's just state at the outset that in 4 BCE, being the son of God, or at least beingthe son of a god was not such an unusual thing. But a poor Jew being the son of God â€” thatwas news. theme music Any understanding of Christianity has to startwith Judaism, because Jesus was born a Jew, and he grew up in the Jewish tradition. Hewas one of many teachers spreading his ideas
in the Roman province of Judea at the time,and he was part of a messianic tradition that helps us understand why he was thought ofnot only teacher but something much, much more. Let's go straight to the Thought Bubbletoday. The people who would become the Jews, werejust one of many tribal peoples eking out an existence in that notvery fertile crescentworld of Mesopotamia after the agricultural revolution. The Hebrews initially worshiped many gods,making sacrifices to them in order to bring good weather and good fortune. But they eventuallydeveloped a religion centered around an idea that would become key to the other great westernreligions.
This was monotheism, the idea that there isonly one true god (or at least that if there are other gods around, they are total lameoids).The Hebrews developed a second concept that is key to their religion as well: the ideaof the covenant, a deal with God. The main man in this, the big macher was Abraham.Not to make this too much of a scripture lesson, but it's kind of hard to understand theJews without understanding Abraham, or Abram as he was known before he had his big conversationwith God. Recorded in Genesis 17: quot;When Abram was ninety years and nine, the LORD appearedto Abram, and said unto him, 'I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.'quot; And I'm a make a covenant with you and
a bunch of cool things will happen like you'regonna have kids and your descendants will number the stars and you can have all theland of Canaan forever, it's gonna be awesome. I'm paraphrasing by the way, Thought Bubble. So God promised that Abram would have kidswith his wife even though the dude was already like 99, but there was a catch: quot;This is mycovenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; every manchild among you shall be circumcised.quot; Keep it PG13, Thought Bubble. Now that is asking a lot from a guy, especiallya 99yearold geezer like Abram living in
a time before general anesthesia. But thosewere the terms of the deal, and in exchange God had chosen Abraham and his descendantsto be a great nation. From this we get the expression that the Jews are the Chosen people. Thanks for keeping it clean, Thought Bubble. So, some important things about this god: One, singularity. He â€” and I'm using themasculine pronoun because that's what Hebrew prayers use â€” does not want you to put anygods before Him. He is also transcendent, having always existedand he is deeply personal â€“ he chats with
prophets, sends locusts, etc. But he doesn'ttake corporeal form like the Greek and Roman Gods do. He is also involved in history, like he willdestroy cities, and bring floods, and determine the outcome of wars, and possibly footballgames. Stan, no! FOOTBALL games! Probably most important to us today, and certainlymost important to Jesus, this god demands moral righteousness and social justice. So,this is the god of the Hebrews, Yahweh, and despite many ups and downs, the Jewish peoplehave stuck with him for according to the Hebrew calendar, at least over 5700 years. And He has stuck by them too, despite theJews being, on occasion, something of a disappointment
Fall of The Roman Empirein the 15th Century Crash Course World History 12
Hi there, my name's John Green; this isCrash Course: World History, and today we're going to talk about the fall of Rome. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, Mr. Green!Who's that pretty ladyé That lady, mefromthepast, is Emperor Justinian.We'll get to him in a minute. Theme Music How and when Rome fell remains the subjectof considerable historical debateâ€” but today I'm going to argue that the Romedidn't really fully fall until the middle of the 15th century. But first, let me introduce you to The TraditionalView:
Barbarians at the Gates.My, don't you look traditionalé If you want to be really technical about it,the city of Rome was conquered by bar bar bar barbarians in 476CE. There was a last Roman Emperor Romulus Augustus,who ruled the empire for less than a year before being deposed and sent into exile byOdoacer, who was some kind of barbarian we don'tknow for sure. Ostrogoth, Hun, Visigoth, Vandals;they all looked the same to the Romans. Rome had been sacked by barbarians before,most notably by Alaric the Visigoth in 410
Is it Uhlarick or UhlairickéThe dictionary says Uhlairick but The Vampire Diaries say Uhlarick soI'm going to go with Uhlarick. But anyway, after 476, there was never againa â€œRomanâ€� emperor in Rome. Then there's the hipper antiimperialisticargumentâ€” that's nice, but if you really want to gofull hipster you should probably deny that you're beinghipstâ€” right, exactlyâ€”which goes like this: Rome was doomed to fall as soon as it spreadoutside of Italy
because the further the territory is fromthe capital, the harder it is to govern. Thus imperialism itself sowed the seeds ofdestruction in Rome. This was the argument put forth by the Romanhistorian Tacitus, although he put it in the mouth of a Britishchieftain. That sounded dirty, but it's not,it's all about context here on Crash Course: quot;To robbery, slaughter, plunder, they give the lyingname of empire; they make a desert and call it peace.â€� There are two ways to overcome this governanceproblem:
First, you rule with the proverbial topazfistâ€” that's not the proverbé Really, StanéIt's an iron fisté But topaz is much harder than iron.Don't these people know their Mohs scale of mineral hardnessé. Regardless,the Romans couldn't do this because their whole identity was wrapped up in an ideaof justice that precluded indiscriminate violence. The other strategy is to try to incorporateconquered people into the empire more fully: In Rome's case,to make them Romans. This worked really well in the early daysof the Republic
and even at the beginning of the Empire.But it eventually led to Barbarians inside the Gates. The decline of the legions started long beforeRome started getting sacked. It really began with the extremely bad decisionto incorporate Germanic warriors into the Roman Army. Rome had a long history of absorbing peoplefrom the empire's fringes into the polity first by making them allies and theneventually by granting them full citizenship rights. But usually these â€œforeignâ€� citizens haddeveloped ties to Rome itself; they learned Latin, they bought into the wholeidea of the aristocratic republic.