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End Of The World Chinese Predictions

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Democracy Authoritarian Capitalism and China Crash Course World History 230

Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash Course WorldHistory and today in our final episode of this World History series we're going to returnto some of our favorite themes, like the rise of the state; maybe the idea of quot;The Westquot;; and alsowe're going to speculate a little bit about the future. Mr. Green! Mr. Green! No, no, no.II thoughtyou were from the future. Nope! I'm from your future, Me From the Past,so I know that NSYNC doesn't stay together, but I'm from my present. Although, now I'mfrom my past. No, present again. That's the problem with the future, me from the past. It keepsbriefly becoming present and then becoming past. And then of course people watching the tutorialswill be watching them in their present, which

will be my ever more distant past. And theycould be watching them in ten years, the things that I have predicted will have come trueor not come true, and I will look like a genius or an idiot. Ahhh I'm freakin' out Stan! Justroll the intro. Man, I'm glad that intro pulled me out ofthat logic loop. I could have been stuck in there forever, which reminds me that foreveritself is a very weird concept. I think the only thing we can say about forever is thatthe future is forever. So Americans are pretty proud of their democraticgovernment and its history, but in world historical terms, democracy has not been the norm. Likethe 20th century was the high tide for democracy

worldwide with the number of democratic governmentsincreasing dramatically, but the 2000's so far have seen something of a antidemocraticrenaissance with the number of democracies that shouldn't actually be called democracies,doubling between 2006 and 2009. Like the People's Democratic Republic of Korea, despite havingdemocratic in the name, not particularly democratic. I'm sorry for saying that Kim Jongun, butit's true. He's behind me, isn't he Stané You'll be gone in 20 years, that's my firstprediction. Also, while democracy can sound great, nocountries have ever actually practiced pure democracy. Unless you count Ancient Athenswhich a) was not a country, it was a city

state and b) it excluded women and slavesfrom the political process so it wasn't really a pure democracy. Because you know, like, mostpeople didn't get to participate in the government. What we call democracies today are actuallythe result of a number of revolutions in political thought that happened mostly in the west betweenthe 17th and 20th centuries. Like, we've talked a lot about the first of these revolutionsin political thought which happened in the 17th century with the creation of the centralizednation state in Europe. And then there was the political breakthrough put forth by JohnStuart Mill, who envisioned a night watchmen state that was like too small to infringeon individuals' freedoms but efficient enough

to be functional and useful as a government. Then in the late 19th and early 20th century,the west developed the idea of the modern welfare state, enshrining the belief thatthe state should provide things like education, health and unemployment insurance to enablecitizens to lead fulfilling lives. The welfare state relies on government planning and bureaucratswho get their jobs not based on high birth but on merits and also datadriven answersto problems. And so we saw the rise of technocrats and intellectuals influencing government policy.To quote the book called quot;The Fourth Revolution,quot; there were two things new about this welfarestate. quot;The taxation of the entire population

to provide benefits for the unfortunate andthe removal of the 'poor law' stigma from social welfare. The poor were now victims,not layabouts.quot; So, in contemporary Europe and the UnitedStates, everyone pays taxes, right. Whether it's consumption taxes or property taxes orincome taxes or whatever. And we don't view poverty merely as personal failing but asa problem that needs to be addressed. And although imperialism certainly made it problematicfor these ideas to spread completely throughout the world, the ideas did prove very powerful,like India adopted a heavily top down welfare state based on British principles once itbecame independent. And even when the liberal

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