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USA vs USSR Fight The Cold War Crash Course World History
Hi, I'm John Green, this is Crash CourseWorld History and today we're gonna talk about the Cold War, which actually lastedinto my lifetime, which means that I can bore you with stories from my past like your grandpadoes. When I was a kid, they made us practice hiding under our desks in the event of a nuclearattack, because, you know, school desks are super good at repelling radiation. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! Right, remember in elementaryschool there was this special guest who'd defected from the Soviet Union, and he had Like this crazy Russian accent and he keptgoing on and on about how Reagan should spit
in Gorbachev's face instead of signing treatieswith him. And I was like, whoa dude calm down. You'rein a room full of third graders. And then for like months afterward on theplayground, we'd play ReaganGorbachev and spit in each other's faces. Those were the days.Sometimes I forget that you're me, Me from the Past. Yeah, it's just really nice to talk to youand feel like you're lis You're boring. Cue the intro. theme music So the Cold War was a rivalry between theUSSR and the USA that played out globally.
We've tried to shy away from calling conflictsideological or civilizational here on Crash Course, but in this case, the â€œclash ofcivilizationsâ€� model really does apply. Socialism, at least as Marx constructed it,wanted to take over the world, and many Soviets saw themselves in a conflict with bourgeoiscapitalism itself. And the Soviets saw American rebuilding efforts in Europe and Japan asthe U.S. trying to expand its markets, which, by the way, is exactly what we were doing. So the U.S. feared that the USSR wanted todestroy democratic and capitalist institutions. And the Soviets feared that the US wantedto use its money and power to dominate Europe
and eventually destroy the Soviet system.And both parties were right to be worried. It's not paranoia if they really are outto get you. Now of course we've seen a lot of geopoliticalstruggles between major world powers here on Crash Course, but this time there was thespecial added bonus that war could lead to the destruction of the human species. Thatwas new for world history, and it's worth remembering: It's still new. Here's theperiod of time we've discussed on Crash Course. And this is how long we've had thetechnological capability to exterminate ourselves. So that's worrisome.
Immediately after World War II, the Sovietscreated a sphere of influence in eastern Europe, dominating the countries where the Red Armyhad pushed back the Nazis, which is why Winston Churchill famously said in 1946 that an â€œIronCurtainâ€� had descended across Europe. While the dates of the Cold War are usuallygiven between 1945 and 1990, a number of historians will tell you that it actually started duringWorld War II. Stalin's distrust of the U.S. and Britain kept growing as they refused toinvade Europe and open up a second front against the Nazis. And some even say that the decisionto drop the first Atomic Bombs on Japan was motivated in part by a desire to intimidatethe Soviets. That sort of worked, but only
insofar as it motivated the Soviets to developatomic bombs of their own â€” they successfully tested their first one in 1949. From the beginning, the U.S had the advantagebecause it had more money and power and could provide Europe protection (what with its armyand one of a kind nuclear arsenal) while Europe rebuilt. The USSR had to rebuild itself, andalso they had the significant disadvantage of being controlled by noted asshat JosephStalin. I will remind you, it's not cursing if he's wearing an ass for a hat. Oh, Iguess it's time for the open letter. An Open Letter to Joseph Stalin.
Decolonization and Nationalism Triumphant Crash Course World History 40
Hi, I'm John Green; this is Crash CourseWorld History and today we're going to talk about decolonization. The empires Europeanstates formed in the 19th century proved about as stable and longlasting as Genghis Khan'sleading to so many of the nation states we know and love today. Yes, I'm looking atyou, Burundi. singing DID YOU EVER KNOW YOU'RE MY BURUNDIéYOU'RE EVERYTHING theme music STAN, DON'T CUT TO THE INTRO! I SING LIKEAN ANGEL! theme music
So unless you're over 60 and let's faceit, Internet, you're not you've only ever known a world of nation states. But aswe've seen from Egypt to Alexander the Great to China to Rome to the Mongols, who, foronce, are not the exception here, Mongoltage to the Ottomans and the Americas, empire has longbeen the dominant way we've organized ourselves politically or at least the way thatother people have organized us. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! So to themStar Wars would've been, like, a completely different movie. Most of them would've beenlike, Go Empire! Crush those rebels! Yeah, also they'd be like what is this screenthat displays crisp moving images of events
that are not currently occurringé Also, notto get offtopic, but you never learn what happens AFTER the rebel victory in Star Wars.And, as as we've learned from the French Revolution to the Arab Spring, revolutionis often the easy part. I mean, you think destroying a Death Star is hardé Try negotiatinga trade treaty with Gungans. Right, anyway. So, the late 20th century was not the firsttime that empires disintegrated. Rome comes to mind. Also the Persians. And of coursethe American Revolution ended one kind of European imperial experiment. But in all thosecases, Empire struck backâ€¦ heh heh, you see what I did thereé I mean, Britain lostits 13 colonies, but later controlled half
of Africa and all of India. And what makesthe recent decolonization so special is that at least so far, no empires have emerged toreplace the ones that fell. And this was largely due to World War II becauseon some level, the Allies were fighting to stop Nazi imperialism. Hitler wanted to takeover Central Europe, and Africa, and probably the Middle East and the Ally defeat of theNazis discredited the whole idea of empire. So the English, French, and Americans couldn'tvery well say to the colonial troops who'd fought alongside them, â€œThank you so muchfor helping us to thwart Germany's imperialistic ambitions. As a reward, please hand in yourrifle and return to your state of subjugation.â€�
Plus, most of the big colonial powers especiallyFrance, Britain, and Japan had been significantly weakened by World War II, by which I meanthat large swaths of them looked like this. So, postwar decolonization happened all overthe place: The British colony that had once been â€œIndiaâ€� became three independentnations. By the way, is this Gandhi or is this Ben Kingsley playing Gandhié In SoutheastAsia, French Indochina became Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. And the Dutch East Indies becameIndonesia. But of course when we think about decolonization, we mostly think about Africagoing from this to this. So we're gonna oversimplify here, becausewe have to, but decolonization throughout
AfroEurasia had some similar characteristics.Because it occurred in the context of the Cold War, many of these new nations had tochoose between socialist and capitalist influences, which shaped their futures. While many ofthese new countries eventually adopted some form of democracy, the road there was oftenrocky. Also, decolonization often involved violence, usually the overthrow of colonialelites. But we'll turn now to the most famous nonviolentor supposedly so, anyway decolonization: that of India. So the story begins, more orless, in 1885 with the founding of the Indian National Congress. Congress Party leadersand other nationalists in India were usually